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David Hovda, Ph.D.

Work Email Address:
dhovda@mednet.ucla.edu

Laboratory Address:
Laboratory
58-125 BRI
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES

Office Address:
Office
18-228A Semel, 10833 Le Conte Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES

Lab Number:
310-825-8646
Office Phone Number:
310-206-3480



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Department / Division Affiliations
Professor, Neurosurgery, Biomedical Physics IDP, Molecular & Medical Pharmacology
Member, ACCESS Program: Dept. of Molecular & Medical Pharmacology, Brain Research Institute, Neuroscience IDP

Publications:

Griesbach GS, Hovda DA, Gomez-Pinilla F, Sutton RL. Voluntary exercise or amphetamine, but not the comination, increases hippocampal BDNF and synapsin 1 following cortical contusion injury in rats. Neuroscience 2008; 154(2): 530-540.
Bartnik BL, Bassilian S, Hovda DA, Lee WNP Glucose Metabolism after Traumatic Brain Injury: Estimation of Pyruvate Carboxylase and Pyruvate Dehydrongenase Flux by Mass Isotopomer Analysis. Journal of Neurotrauma 2007; 24(1): 181-194.
Dusick J, Glenn T, Lee W-N, Vespa P, Kelly D, Lee S, Hovda D, Martin N Increased Pentose Phosphate Pathway Flux Following Clinical Traumatic Brain Injury: A [1,2-13C2]-Glucose Labeling Study in Humans. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 2007; 27(9): 1593-1602.
Vespa PM, Miller C, McArthur D, Eliseo M, Etchepare M, Hirt D, Glenn TC, Martin N, Hovda D Nonconvuulsive Electrographic Seizures after Traumatic Brain Injury Result in a Delayed, Prolonged Increase in Intracranial Pressure and Metabolic Crisis. Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35(12): 2830-2836.
Vespa PM, O'Phelan K, McArthur D, Miller C, Eliseo M, Hirt D, Glenn T, Hovda DA Pericontusional Brain Tissue Exhibits Persistent Elevation of Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio Independent of Cerebral Perfusion Pressure. Critical Care Medicine 2007; 35(4): 1153-1160.
Bartnik BL, Lee SM, Hovda DA, Sutton RL The Fate of Glucose During the Period of Decreased Metabolism after Fluid Percussion Injury: A 13C NMR Study. Journal of Neurotrauma 2007; 24(7): 1079-1092.
Griesbach GS, Gomez-Pinilla F, Hovda DA Time Window for Voluntary Exercise-Induced Increases in Hippocampal Neuroplasticity Molecules after Traumatic Brain Injury is Severity Dependent. Journal of Neurotrauma 2007; 24(7): 1161-1171.
Myer DJ, Gurkoff GG, Norton D, Lee SM, Hovda DA, Sofroniew MV Essential Protective Roles of Reactive Astrocytes in Traumatic Brain Injury. Brain 2006; 129: 2761-2772.
Rassovsky Y, Satz P, Alfano MS, Light RK, Zaucha K, McArthur DL, Hovda D Functional Outcome in TBI I: Neuropsychological, Emotional, and Behavioral Mediators. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2006; 28(4): 567-580.
Rassovsky Y, Satz P, Alfano MS, Light RK, Zaucha K, McArthur DL, Hovda D. Functional Outcome in TBI II: Verbal Memory and Information Processing Speed Mediators. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 2006; 28(4): 581-591.
Vespa P, Boonyaputthikul R, McArthur DL, Miller C, Etchepare M, Bergsneider M, Glenn T, Martin N, Hovda D. Intensive Insulin Therapy Reduced Microdialysis Glucose Values Without Altering Glucose Utilization or Improving the Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio after Traumatic Brain Injury. Critical Care Medicine. 2006; 34(3): 850-856.
Gurkoff GG, Giza CC, Hovda DA. Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury in the Developing Rat Causes an Acute, Mild Behavioral Dysfunction in the Absence of Significant Cell Death. Brain Research. 2006; 1077(1): 24-36.
Hovda DA, Villablanca JR, Chugani HT, Barrio JR Metabolic Maturation of the Brain: A Study of Local Cerebral Protein Synthesis in the Developing Cat. Brain Research 2006; 1113(1): 54-63.
Giza CC, Santa Maria NS, Hovda DA N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Changes Following Traumatic Injury to the Developing Brain. Journal of Neurotrauma 2006; 23(6): 950-961.
Ben Simon GJ, Hovda DA, Harris NG, Gomez-Pinilla F, Goldberg RA Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23(7): 1072-82.
Prins ML, Fujima LS, Hovda DA. Age-Dependent Reduction of Cortical Contusion Volume by Ketones Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research. 2005; 82: 413-420.
Thompson HJ, Lifshitz J, Marklund N, Grady MS, Graham DI, Hovda DA, McIntosh TK Lateral Fluid Percussion Brain Injury: A 15-Year Review and Evaluation. Journal of Neurotrauma 2005; 22(1): 42-75.
Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Hattori N, Wu C, Huang S-C, Martin NA, Glenn T, McArthur DL, Hovda DA. Metabollic Crisis Without Brain Ischemia is Common after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Combined Microdialysis and Positron Emission Tomography Study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 2005; 25(6): 763-774.
Nuwer MR, Hovda DA, Schrader LM, Vespa PM. Routine and Quantitative EEG in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Clinical Neuropsysiology. 2005; 116(9): 2001-2025.
Hillered L, Vespa PM, Hovda DA. Translational Neurochemical Research in Acute Human Brain Injury: The Current Status and Potential Future for Cerebral Microdialysis. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2005; 22(1): 3-41.
Bartnik BL, Sutton RL, Fukushima M, Harris NG, Hovda DA, Lee SM Upregulation of Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Preservation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Flux after Experimental Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2005; 22(10): 1052-1065.
Hattori N, Bergsneider M, Wu HM, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Hovda DA, Phelps ME, Huang SC. Accuracy of a Method Using Short Inhalation of [15]O-O2 for Measuring Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction with PET in Healthy Humans. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2004; 45: 765-770.
Hattori N, Huang SC, Wu HM, Liao W, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Phelps ME, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Acute Changes in Regional Cerebral [18]F-FDG Kinetics in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2004; 45: 775-783.
Prins ML, Lee SM, Fujima LS, Hovda DA. Increased Cerebral Uptake and Oxidation of Exogenous Beta HB Improves ATP Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Rats. Journal of Neuroschemistry. 2004; 90: 666-672.
Osteen CL, Giza CC, Hovda DA. Injury-Induced Alterations in N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Composition Contribute to Prolonged [45]Calcium Accumulation Following Lateral Fluid Percussion. Neuroscience. 2004; 128: 305-322.
Griesbach, GS Hovda, DA Molteni, R Wu, A Gomez-Pinilla, F. Voluntary Exercise Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Upregulation and Recovery of Function. Neuroscience. 2004; 125(1): 129-39.
Hattori N, Huang SC, Wu HM, Yeh E, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Phelps ME, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Correlation of Regional Metabolic Rates of Glucose with Glasgow Coma Scale Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2003; 44(11): 1709-1716.
Wu HM, Bergsneider M, Glenn T, Yeh E, Hovda DA, Phelps ME, Huang SC. Measurement of the Global Lumped Constant for 2-Deoxy-2[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose in Normal Human Brain Using [15O]Water and 2-Deoxy-2[18F]Fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography Imaging: A Method with Validation Based on Multiple Methodologies. Molecular Imaging and Biology 2003; 5(1): 32-41.
Ip EY, Roncati-Zanier E, Moore AH, Lee SM, Hovda DA. Metabolic, Neurochemical, and Histological Responses to Vibrissa Motor Cortex Stimulation Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2003; 23(8): 900-910.
Vespa PM, McArthur D, O'Phelan K, Glenn T, Etchepare M, Kelly D, Bergsneider M, Martin NA, Hovda DA. Persistently Low Extracellular Glucose Correlates with Poor Outcome at Six Months After Human Traumatic Brain Injury Despite a Lack of Increased Lactate: A Microdialysis Study. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2003; 23(7): 865-877.
Naryan RK, Michel ME, Ansell B, Baethmann A, Biegon A, Bracken MB, Bullock MR, Choi SC, Clifton GL, Contant CF, Coplin WM, Dietrich WD, Ghajar J, Grady SM, Grossman RG, Hall ED, Heetderks W, Hovda DA, Jallo J, Katz RL, Knoller N, Kochanek PM, Maas AI, Majde J, Marion DW, Marmarou A, Marshall LF, McIntosh TK, Miller E, Mohberg N, Muizelaar JP, Pitts LH, Quinn P, Riesenfeld G, Rovertson CS, Strauss KI, Teasdale G, Temkin N, Tuma R, Wade C, Walker MD, Weinrich M, Whyte J, Wilberger J, Young AB, Yurkewicz L. Clinical Trials in Head Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(5): 503-557.
Marklund N, Clausen F, Lewen A, Hovda DA, Olsson Y, Hillered L. Alpha-Phenyl-tert-N-Butyl Nitrone (PBN) Improves Functional and Morphological Outcome After Cortical Contusion Injury in the Rat. Acta Neurochir. 2001; 143: 73-81.
Fineman I, Giza CC, Nahed BV, Lee SM, Hovda DA. Inhibition of Neocortial Plasticity During Development by a Moderate Concussive Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma 2000; 17: 739-749.
Steinsapir, KD Goldberg, RA Sinha, S Hovda, DA. Methylprednisolone Exacerbates Axonal Loss Following Optic Nerve Trauma in Rats. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2000; 17(4): 157-163.
Moore AH, Osteen CL, Chatziioannou AF, Hovda DA, Cherry SR. Quantitative Assessment of Longitudinal Metabolic Changes in vivo Following Traumatic Brain Injury in the Adult Rat Using FDG-MicroPET. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2000; 20: 1492-1501.
Hovda DA and Villablanca JR. Cerebral Metabolism Following Neonatal or Adult Hemineodecortication in Cats: Effect on Oxidative Capacity Using Cytochrome Oxidase Histochemistry. Developmental Brain Research . 1998; 110: 39-50.
Hovda DA, Villablanca JR, Chugani HT. Cerebral Metabolism Following Hemispherectomy in Cats: I. Effect on Glucose Metabolism Using [<sup>14</sup>C] 2-deoxy-D-glucose Autoradiography. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 1996; 16: 134-146.
Reger Maxine L, Poulos Andrew M, Buen Floyd, Giza Christopher C, Hovda David A, Fanselow Michael S Concussive brain injury enhances fear learning and excitatory processes in the amygdala. Biological psychiatry. 2012; 71(4): 335-43.
Irimia Andrei, Chambers Micah C, Torgerson Carinna M, Filippou Maria, Hovda David A, Alger Jeffry R, Gerig Guido, Toga Arthur W, Vespa Paul M, Kikinis Ron, Van Horn John D Patient-tailored connectomics visualization for the assessment of white matter atrophy in traumatic brain injury. Frontiers in neurology. 2012; 3(4): 10.
Deng-Bryant Ying, Prins Mayumi L, Hovda David A, Harris Neil G Ketogenic diet prevents alterations in brain metabolism in young but not adult rats after traumatic brain injury. Journal of neurotrauma. 2011; 28(9): 1813-25.
Moro Nobuhiro, Ghavim Sima S, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Delayed sodium pyruvate treatment improves working memory following experimental traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience letters. 2011; 491(2): 158-62.
Cazalis Fabienne, Babikian Talin, Giza Christopher, Copeland Sarah, Hovda David, Asarnow Robert F Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth. Frontiers in neurology. 2011; 1(2): 158.
Barkhoudarian Garni, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury. Clinics in sports medicine. 2011; 30(1): 33-48, vii-iii.
Bartnik-Olson Brenda L, Oyoyo Udochukwu, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Astrocyte oxidative metabolism and metabolite trafficking after fluid percussion brain injury in adult rats. Journal of neurotrauma. 2010; 27(12): 2191-202.
Harris Neil G, Mironova Yevgeniya A, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Chondroitinase ABC enhances pericontusion axonal sprouting but does not confer robust improvements in behavioral recovery. Journal of neurotrauma. 2010; 27(11): 1971-82.
Xu Yueqiao, McArthur David L, Alger Jeffry R, Etchepare Maria, Hovda David A, Glenn Thomas C, Huang Sungcheng, Dinov Ivo, Vespa Paul M Early nonischemic oxidative metabolic dysfunction leads to chronic brain atrophy in traumatic brain injury. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2010; 30(4): 883-94.
Babikian Talin, Prins Mayumi L, Cai Yan, Barkhoudarian Garni, Hartonian Ivet, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C Molecular and physiological responses to juvenile traumatic brain injury: focus on growth and metabolism. Developmental neuroscience. 2010; 32(5-6): 431-41.
Harris Neil G, Mironova Yevgeniya A, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Pericontusion axon sprouting is spatially and temporally consistent with a growth-permissive environment after traumatic brain injury. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 2010; 69(2): 139-54.
Reger Maxine L, Hovda David A, Giza Christopher C Ontogeny of Rat Recognition Memory measured by the novel object recognition task. Developmental psychobiology. 2009; 51(8): 672-8.
Griesbach Grace Sophia, Hovda David Allen, Gomez-Pinilla Fernando Exercise-induced improvement in cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury in rats is dependent on BDNF activation. Brain research. 2009; 1288(8): 105-15.
Fukushima Masamichi, Lee Stefan M, Moro Nobuhiro, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Metabolic and histologic effects of sodium pyruvate treatment in the rat after cortical contusion injury. Journal of neurotrauma. 2009; 26(7): 1095-110.
Marklund, Sihver, Hovda, Långström, Watanabe, Ronquist, Bergström, Hillered INCREASED CEREBRAL UPTAKE OF [18F]FLUORO-DEOXYGLUCOSE BUT NOT [1-14C]GLUCOSE EARLY FOLLOWING TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN RATS. Journal of neurotrauma. 2009; .
Appelberg K Sofia, Hovda David A, Prins Mayumi L The effects of a ketogenic diet on behavioral outcome after controlled cortical impact injury in the juvenile and adult rat. Journal of neurotrauma. 2009; 26(4): 497-506.
Prins Mayumi L, Hovda David A THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND KETOGENIC DIET ON LOCAL CEREBRAL METABOLIC RATES OF GLUCOSE AFTER CONTROLLED CORTICAL IMPACT INJURY IN RATS. Journal of neurotrauma. 2009; 26(4): .
Griesbach Grace S, Sutton Ricihard L, Hovda David A, Ying Zhe, Gomez-Pinilla Fernando Controlled contusion injury alters molecular systems associated with cognitive performance. Journal of neuroscience research. 2008; 87(3): 795-805.
Marcoux Judith, McArthur David A, Miller Chad, Glenn Thomas C, Villablanca Pablo, Martin Neil A, Hovda David A, Alger Jeffry R, Vespa Paul M Persistent metabolic crisis as measured by elevated cerebral microdialysis lactate-pyruvate ratio predicts chronic frontal lobe brain atrophy after traumatic brain injury. Critical care medicine. 2008; 36(10): 2871-7.
Aoyama Naoki, Lee Stefan M, Moro Nobuhiro, Hovda David A, Sutton Richard L Duration of ATP reduction affects extent of CA1 cell death in rat models of fluid percussion injury combined with secondary ischemia. Brain research. 2008; 1230(3): 310-9.
O'Phelan Kristine, McArthur David L, Chang Cherylee W J, Green Deborah, Hovda David A The impact of substance abuse on mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. The Journal of trauma. 2008; 65(3): 674-7.
Maeda T, Lee SM, Hovda, DA. Restoration of Cerebral Vasoreactivity by an L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Following Fluid Percussion Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2005; 22(7): 763-71.
Giza CC, Griesbach GS, Hovda DA. Experience-Dependent Behavioral Plasticity is Disturbed Following Traumatic Injury to the Immature Brain. Behavioural Brain Research. 2005; 157(1): 11-22.
Thompson, HJ Lifshitz, J Marklund, N Grady, MS Graham, DI Hovda, DA McIntosh, TK. Lateral fluid percussion brain injury: a 15-year review and evaluation. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2005; 22(1): 42-75.
Wu HM, Huang SC, Hattori N, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M. Subcortical White Matter Metabolic Changes Remote From Focal Hemorrhagic Lesions Suggest Diffuse Injury After Human Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurosurgery. 2004; 55(6): 1306-15; discussio 1316-7.
Li HH, Lee SM, Cai Y, Sutton RL, Hovda DA. Differential Gene Expression in Hippocampus Following Experimental Brain Trauma Reveals Distinct Features of Moderate and Severe Injuries. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2004; 21(9): 1141-53.
Lifshitz J, Sullivan PG, Hovda DA, Wieloch T, McIntosh TK. Mitochondrial Damage and Dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury. Mitochondrion. 2004; 4(5-6): 705-13.
Griesbach GS, Gomez-Pinilla F, Hovda DA. The Upregulation of Plasticity-Related Proteins Following TBI is Disrupted with Acute Voluntary Exercise. Brain Research. 2004; 1016(2): 154-62.
Kozlowski DA, Nahed BV, Hovda DA, Lee SM. Paradoxical Effects of Cortical Impact Injury on Environmentally Enriched Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2004; 21(5): 513-519.
Wu HM, Huang SC, Hattori N, Glenn TC, Vespa PM, Yu CL, Hovda DA, Phelps ME, Bergsneider M. Selective Metabolic Reduction in Gray Matter Acutely Following Human Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2004; 21(2): 149-161.
Glenn TC, Kelly DF, Boscardin WJ, McArthur DL, Vespa P, Oertel M, Hovda DA, Bergsneider M, Hillered L, Martin NA. Energy Dysfunction as a Predictor of Outcome After Moderate or Severe Head Injury: Indices of Oxygen, Glucose, and Lactate Metabolism. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 2003; 23(10): 1239-1250.
Zanier ER, Lee SM, Vespa PM, Giza CC, Hovda DA. Increased Hippocampal CA3 Vulnerability to Low-Level Kainic Acid Following Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2003; 20(5): 409-420.
Prins ML, Hovda DA. Developing Experimental Models to Address Traumatic Brain Injury in Children. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2003; 20(2): 123-137.
Taylor AN, Romeo HE, Beylin AV, Tio DL, Rahman SU, Hovda DA. Alcohol Consumption in Traumatic Brain Injury: Attenuation of TBI-Induced Hyperthermia and Neurocognitive Deficits. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(12): 1597-1608.
Oertel M, Kelly DF, Lee JH, McArthur DL, Glenn TC, Vespa P, Boscardin WJ, Hovda DA, Martin NA. Efficacy of Hyperventilation, Blood Pressure Elevation, and Metabolic Suppression Therapy in Controlling Intracranial Pressure After Head Injury. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2002; 97(5): 1045-1053.
Griesbach GS, Hovda DA, Molteni R, Gomez-Pinilla F. Alterations in BDNF and Synapsin I Within the Occipital Cortex and Hippocampus After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the Developing Rat: Reflections of Injury-Induced Neuroplasticity. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(7): 803-814.
Vespa PM, Boscardin WJ, Hovda DA, McArthur DL, Nuwer MR, Martin NA, Nenov V, Glenn TC, Bergsneider M, Kelly DF, Becker DP. Early and Persistent Impaired Percent Alpha Variability on Continuous Electroencephalography Monitoring as Predictive of Poor Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2002; 97(1): 84-92.
Ip EY, Giza CC, Griesbach GS, Hovda DA. Effects of Enriched Environment and Fluid Percussion Injury on Dendritic Arborization Within the Cerebral Cortex of the Developing Rat. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(5): 573-585.
Giza CC, Prins ML, Hovda DA, Herschman HR, Feldman JD. Genes Preferentially Induced by Depolarization After Concussive Brain Injury: Effects of Age and Injury Severity. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(4): 387-402.
Glenn TC, Patel AB, Martin NA, Samii A, De Jesus C, Hovda DA. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induces Dynamic Changes in Regional Cerebral Metabolism in Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2002; 19(4): 449-466.
Peek-Asa C, McArthur D, Hovda D, Kraus J. Early Predictors of Mortality in Penetrating Compared with Closed Brain Injury. Brain Injury. 2001; 15(9): 801-810.
Giza, CC Hovda, DA The Neurometabolic Cascade of Concussion. Sport-Related Concussion: Journal of Athletic Training. 2001; 36(3): 228-235.
Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, McArthur DL, Etchepare M, Huang SC, Sehati N, Satz P, Phelps ME, Becker DP. Metabolic Recovery Following Human Traumatic Brain Injury Based on FDG-PET: Time Course and Relationship to Neurological Disability. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation. 2001; 16(2): 135-148.
Osteen CL, Moore AH, Prins ML, Hovda DA. Age-Dependency of 45Calcium Accumulation Following Lateral Fluid Percussion: Acute and Delayed Patterns. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2001; 18(2): 141-162.
Prins ML, Hovda DA. Mapping Cerebral Glucose Metabolism During Spatial Learning: Interactions of Development and Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. 2001; 18(1): 31-46.
Prins ML, Hovda DA. Traumatic Brain Injury in the Developing Rat: Effects of Maturation on Morris Water Maze Acquisition. Journal of Neurotrauma. 1998; 15(10): 799-811.
Kelly DF, Lee SM, Pinanong PA, Hovda DA. Paradoxical Effects of Acute Ethanolism in Experimental Brain Injury. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1997; 86(5): 876-882.
Bergsneider M, Hovda DA, Shalmon E, Kelly DF, Vespa PM, Martin NA, Phelps ME, McArthur DL, Caron MJ, Kraus JF, Becker DP. Cerebral Hyperglycolysis Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans: A Positron Emission Tomography Study. Journal of Neurosurgery. 1997; 86(2): 241-251.