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Arthur Arnold, Ph.D.

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Laboratory Address:
LSB 4117


Work Address:
LSB 4117


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Department / Division Affiliations
Distinguished Professor, Integrative Biology and Physiology
Member, ACCESS Program: Dept. of Molecular, Cell & Integrative Physiology, Access Genetics and Genomics Home Area, Access Molecular, Cellular and Integrative Physiology Home Area, Access Neuroscience Home Area, Brain Research Institute, Neuroscience IDP
Faculty, BWF-IT-MD, Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative Physiology IDP

Research Interest:

Sexual differentiation of the brain, sex chromosomal influences on neural development

We study the forces that make male and female brains develop differently. Sex differentiation during neural development underlies sex differences in behavior, physiology, and susceptibility to disease. The major concept of sexual differentiation for the last 50 years has been that gonadal steroid hormones cause sex differences in brain development. A variety of evidence suggests to us that this may not be the only mechanism, and we are investigating the hypothesis that genes on the sex chromosomes are expressed in brain and influence neural development directly via non-hormonal mechanisms. In mice and songbirds, we have determined that sex chromosomal genes are indeed expressed in a sex-specific manner in brain early in development. We are studying sex differences in gene expression to characterize when molecular sexual differentiation occurs, and in what gene pathways. We are also studying mice that have altered sex chromosomes to determine if the complement of sex chromosomes influences the development of brain and behavior.


Arnold AP, Itoh Y, Melamed E A bird's eye view of sex chromosome dosage compensation. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 2008; in press: .
*Gioiosa L, *Chen X (co-first authors), Watkins R, Klanfer N, Bryant CD, Evans CJ, Arnold AP Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of actue and chronic exposure to morphine in mice. Hormones and Behavior 2008; 54: 124-130.
Chen X, Watkins R, Delot E, Releine R, Schiestl RH, Burgoyne PS, Arnold AP Sex difference in neural tube defects in p53-null mice is caused by differences in the complement of X not Y genes. Developmental Neurobiology 2008; 68: 265-273.
*Itoh Y, *Melamed E (*co-first authors), Yang X, Kampf K, Wang S, Yehya N, Van Nas A, Replogle K, Band MR, Clayton DF, Schadt EE, Lusis AJ, Arnold AP Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals. Journal of Biology. 2007; 6: 2.
Melamed E, Arnold AP Regional differences in dosage compensation on the chicken Z chromosome. Genome Biology 2007; 8: R202.
Quinn JJ, Hitchcott PK, Umeda EA, Arnold AP, Taylor JR Sex chromosome complement determines habit formation. Nature Neuroscience 2007; 10: 1398-1400.
Gatewood JD, Wills A, Shetty S, Xu J, Arnold AP, Burgoyne PS, Rissman EF. Sex chromosome complement and gonadal sex influence aggressive and parental behaviors in mice. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26: 2335-2342.
Palaszynski KM, Smith DL, Burgoyne PS, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR A yin-yang effect between sex chromosomes and sex hormones on the immune response. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 3280-3285.
Chen X, Agate RJ, Itoh Y, Arnold AP Sexually dimorphic expression of trkB, a Z-linked gene, in early posthatch zebra finch brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2005; 102: 7730-7735.
Arnold, AP Burgoyne, PS Are XX and XY brain cells intrinsically different?. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. . 2004; 15(1): 6-11.
Agate RJ, Grisham W, Wade J, Mann S, Wingfield J, Schanen C, Palotie A, Arnold AP Neural not gonadal origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 2003; 100: 4873-4878.
Carruth LC, Reisert I, Arnold AP Direct effect of sex chromosome genes on brain sexual differentiation. Nature Neuroscience 2002; 5: 933-934.
De Vries GJ, Rissman EF, Simerly RB, Yang L-Y , Scordalakes EM, Auger C, Swain A, Lovell-Badge R, Burgoyne PS, Arnold AP Sex chromosome effects on the induction of sexually dimorphic neural and behavioral development. Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22: 9005-9014.
Arnold AP Sex chromosomes and brain gender. Nature Reviews Neuroscience . 2004; 5(9): 701-8.